What Is Fragile X Syndrome? An Overview

If you’re curious to learn more about what fragile X syndrome is, as well as the common symptoms and treatments that are available, then this guide is going to give the information you need. So, without any further introduction, let’s take a closer look at this condition.

What is fragile X syndrome?

This condition is regarded as a genetic disorder that primarily influences a person’s intellectual ability. The severity can range from mild to severe, and it is also related to autism, with around one-third of sufferers also having autism-related issues such as delayed speech and difficulty with social interaction. What’s more, it more commonly affects males rather than females.

It’s worth noting that the condition is also referred to as Martin Bell syndrome, although fragile X syndrome seems to be the most common term used to describe the disorder nowadays.

What are the common symptoms?

The symptoms of the condition can vary by quite some degree, with a range of developmental, behavioral, and muscular issues being associated with the condition. Additionally, there are some physical characteristics such as larger ears, enlarged head, and a prominent jaw, combined with a thinner-than-average face.

In terms of behavior, it can cause aggression, repetitive movements, and nonsensical word repetition for most sufferers.

Developmentally, it can cause speech delay and overall learning disability for most people with the condition. For many sufferers, seizures and anxiety along with hyperactivity become behavioral issues that have further effects on learning ability.

The condition is usually diagnosed at a very young age, and there will be a noticeable onset by the time the child reaches approximately two years old.

What are the treatments?

Unfortunately, there are no known cures for the condition overall, although there are a number of therapy-related solutions that can help the sufferer to treat their most problematic learning disabilities.

Additionally, there are several medications that can help to regulate the person’s mood as well as help to combat the anxiety that is often associated with the condition.


Overall, the condition of fragile X syndrome is a relatively rare condition that only affects 1 in 4000 males or 1 in 8000 females, and it has a number of symptoms that are often noticed a young age.

While there are no known cures, there are several therapies and medication based treatments that can help a person to navigate the challenges that this syndrome can cause throughout a lifetime.

What Is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and How Is It Treated

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or OCD is an anxiety disorder that’s often identified by interfering and undesired thoughts known as obsessions and mental or behavioral rituals known as compulsions. OCD is a very common disorder, and in fact, the fourth most diagnosed mental disorder in the united states. It can be quite mild or highly deliberating, but all patients agree that this disorder interferes with their lives and relationships in an unhealthy state.

Well, treating OCD takes time as the obsessions are embedded in the mind, and the victim finds it hard to distract his or her mind. The obsessions tend to cause anxiety and to alleviate it, the individual needs to exercise compulsive behavior. The difficulty in treatment arises at two levels. The first appears when the person becomes habitual to reduce anxiety through compulsive behavior and the second happens when the clinician stops the patient from performing a compulsion after an obsession occurs.

There are a variety of techniques and therapies that collaborate and are used to treat OCD, which we shall briefly cover below:

Pharmacological Treatment

Research has shown that serotonin, a neurotransmitter is involved in OCD. Low levels of serotonin can induce obsessions and compulsions in an individual, and if that’s the case, Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are recommended.


There is a number of psychotherapies that can be used to treat OCD:

The first thing that psychologists is psycho educating the patient and his or her loved ones about the condition. This stage involves developing a full understanding of the issue including the causes, symptoms and viable treatment modes.

Clinicians usually employ relaxation therapy as a treatment for the OCD. In this form of therapy, the clinician teaches the patient how to calm themselves down. Self-instruction or self-talk is one of the most beneficial techniques for people with obsessive compulsive disorder. During self-instruction, the patient talks him or herself in order to guide. This is also helpful in preventing the patient from performing compulsions.

Exposure Response Prevention or ERP is one of the most popular OCD treatment methods under psychotherapies. In this treatment method, the patient is exposed to anxiety provoking action, for example, touching the handle of a door and not being allowed to wash their hands afterward. This hopefully alleviates anxiety, and the patient learns that compulsive behavior is not the way to reduce anxiety.

These are of course, not the only methods of treating OCD, but are the most popular.

What Is Bipolar Disorder? An Overview

If you’re interested in learning more about what bipolar disorder truly is, then this guide is going to explain the disorder, as well as give you further information regarding common symptoms and effective treatments. With this in mind, let’s take a closer look.

What is bipolar disorder?

In general, bipolar disorder is considered to be a form of brain disorder that has an impact on a person’s mood, energy levels, and overall ability to function in their everyday life.

Additionally, the disorder can be categorized in three different ways, breaking down into the bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic disorder, which tends to be the rarest but mildest form of the condition.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms a person will suffer from can vary greatly, but most sufferers of bipolar disorder will experience some form of extreme mood swings, which tend to follow a cycle of manic episodes followed by deeper depressive episodes where they can feel incredible sadness and hopelessness about their life.

Of course, this can often be misdiagnosed as depression, but the key distinction between the two is that bipolar disorder will feature manic episodes whereas depression does not come with the manic episodes, which are specifically associated with bipolar.

What are the solutions?

Fortunately, it’s good to know that most forms of bipolar disorder can be treated with a combination of medication based intervention along with psychotherapy.

In most cases, mood stabilizers tend to be the most effective medical solution, although anticonvulsant medication is also used in some instances.

For best recovery and management of the condition, therapy is essential for helping a person process their experience as well as helping the sufferer to gain a deeper understanding of how the condition works and how they can still lead a normal life.

What’s more, ongoing treatment is often needed in order to prevent relapse, which can be common even when the sufferer feels that they have finally got a handle on the condition.

In the most extreme circumstances, treatment such as electroconvulsive therapy has been used to great effect, although this remains controversial.


Overall, the bipolar condition is often misdiagnosed as depression or similar mental disorders, but it’s certainly worth gaining a better understanding of what bipolar disorder truly is. If you suspect that you may be suffering from bipolar disorder, then it’s wise to consult a medical professional as soon as possible to receive the proper diagnosis and to learn more about the different treatment options available to you.

Discover The Facts About Deaf-Blindness

There are a number of people that develop a condition called deaf-blindness. This particular condition is considered to be very isolating because the individual suddenly loses their ability to hear and see, and this makes it extremely difficult for them to communicate easily. Here we will take a look at the facts about this debilitating condition known as deaf-blindness.

What Causes This Condition?

There are a number of conditions that have been linked to the development of deaf-blindness. Chief among these are cerebral palsy, certain infections contracted during pregnancy such as German Measles, Usher syndrome, and age related hearing loss. The age of the individual as well as the root causes of this condition can all determine to what degree the individual will suffer hearing loss and the ability to see.

When someone is born with this condition, according to a law firm, it’s all they have ever known and their ability to adjust is usually much greater. But when someone has lived their life with the ability to see and hear and then they are suddenly thrust into darkness and without the ability to hear, then it can be quite overwhelming for the person. Because many of these patients will have other conditions, then it is sometimes difficult or even impossible to determine exactly what caused the condition.

How To Live With Deaf-Blindness

Because each individual who suffers from this condition will have varying levels of hearing and sight, this means their particular needs for assistance will also vary. The main thing that will be needed for the individual is that they have the assistance they need in order to maintain their daily life. It will be necessary for a healthcare professional to determine exactly the best course of action to preserve any remaining hearing and sight that the person still has.

The individual will want to maximize any hearing and sight they still have and this might mean that the underlying condition will need to be treated as well as making sure the patient has access to things such as glasses and hearing aids and other health care that they may need.

Taking The First Steps For Medical Care

Once someone feels they may have this condition they should go to their general practitioner. If you or a family member notices that you’re not able to see as well as before and/or you are not hearing well, then you need to make an appointment with your family doctor and then he can determine if you need to be recommended to a specialist. Making the best of this condition is a matter of getting the help you need.

Dyscalculia – The Arithmetic Learning Disorder

Dyscalculia is a very unfortunate learning disorder that causes a person to have difficulty understanding arithmetic. This could include a difficulty understanding how numbers work, manipulating those numbers using math, and understanding mathematical principles. It also often results in a difficulty understanding time and measurements.

Dyscalculia has been growing increasingly more common over the past decades. Some believe that it has become just as common as dyslexia. It is usually identified in children, but it can just as easily exist with adults as well. And while it is primarily noticed at school where math occurs on a daily basis, it doesn’t stop there. It can cause serious problems in the patient’s day-to-day life.

It’s believed that dyscalculia is a lifelong disorder. There’s no concrete cure for the condition, but there are steps that parents can take to help their children learn to do math even with this disorder.

Identifying The Condition.

Identifying this condition can be somewhat difficult. It’s not as simple as drawing blood or testing saliva. Parents need to observe their children as much as possible to determine if they are displaying the symptoms of dyscalculia. The signs will vary according to the age of the child and the type of math they are working with.

For example, at the grade school level, children who continue to use their fingers to count instead of attempting mental math may have the condition. Students with the condition at this age may also have difficulty recognizing math symbols, such as the addition, division, or multiplication symbol. They may also have a difficulty understanding the meaning of math terms like “greater than”.

The symptoms can change a bit as the child goes into middle school. However, if they are still showing the same symptoms from grade school, then it’s important to take notice. Symptoms in middle school can include a difficulty keeping score, understanding fractions, or taking measurements.

Other Potential Problems.

A child with a learning disorder like dyscalculia is likely to suffer from additional issues as well. In 2004, 25 percent of students with the condition also suffered from ADHD. Around half of the students with the disorder also have dyslexia.

There are many potential causes for these conditions. It may be hereditary, a problem with development, the environment, or result from an injury. And while a cure may not be available, there are many effective treatments you can use to overcome the symptoms.

The Concise Guide to Stuttering

Stuttering is an involuntary interruption to the normal flow of speech. This is characterized by becoming stuck on a single syllable or entire word during the sentence, like stu – stutter. Other times the symptom is characterized by a prolongation of one specific sound, for example, SSsssssssss– stutter.

Other people will simply stop mid sentence as if hesitating to say a word or continuing in a sentence. Finally, others will simply stop and make no sound as they attempt to complete their thought. Then there are other side-effects like becoming physically tired when attempting to communicate and of course the natural stress and frustration that can accompany such a speech impediment.

What Causes Stuttering?

Stuttering can be caused by a number of reasons that include childhood speech habits and even nervous conditions, says a speech pathologist in Florida. Some of the most common reasons for stuttering are:

-Specific family dynamics that cultivate the improper speech habits
-Family history of stuttering
-Developmental process during formative years
-Brain injuries that interrupt speech patterns.
-Severe Trauma which can cause a psychogenic stuttering.

How Is Stuttering Treated?

Not every child who develops a stuttering problem will need to receive treatment. This is because many of these conditions have to do with developmental stuttering that can be grown out of. One of the best options is speech therapy for those that do linger past the teens.

Speech Therapy

Speech therapy can do much to help a child process their thoughts and form their speech patterns effectively this can actually help the child to control their stuttering and begin speaking properly. Therapy is most often centered around the control of through interfacing with laryngeal tension, breathing patterns and rate of speech.

Speech therapy is the best option for treating those that:

— have stuttered for the last three to seven months.

–Struggle with stuttering due to emotional upset or family history of stuttering.

–speech therapy can also help a child who has developed stuttering conditions due to nervousness when speaking to adopt correct speech patterns.

Other Treatments

Electronic devices are also used to bring a speech recognition to the stuttering patient that allows them to adjust their speech patterns in an intuitive way. This can include playing back an electronic recording of the voice to help them consciously slow their rate of speech. Some other electronic devices to aid in reducing stuttering include, small earpieces. These emit a sound that has been known to help reduce the symptoms of this condition to a certain extent.

What Is Auditory Processing Disorder – An Overview

The condition is known as “auditory processing disorder” isn’t something that is widely understood by the layperson, but it is considered to be an umbrella term that covers a variety of different disorders that affect how your brain processes auditory information.

In this guide, we’re going to go into more detail regarding this condition, as well as explain some of the most common symptoms as well as the most useful treatments.

What is auditory processing disorder?

First of all, auditory processing disorder is a term given to several conditions that affect a person’s ability to understand and process audio information, particularly when it comes to understanding speech.

While the condition isn’t fully understood, there have been links drawn between head trauma, premature birth, and ear infections each of which has caused specific cases of auditory processing disorder to occur.

The condition is often first noticed in children, and it is often noticed when a child first begins to have difficulty discerning the words people say in conversation.

What are the symptoms?

In most cases, the primary symptom is the difficulty in understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. However, it can also affect a person’s ability to distinguish different types of sound, especially if they are quite similar in nature.

The condition also results in learning disability for some individuals, and it can also manifest itself as an overall sensitivity to sound.

What are the treatments?

Unfortunately, there is no known cure for the condition itself, although there are a variety of ways to treat the symptoms, which can allow the sufferer to continue with their life with as minimal interference as possible.

Perhaps the most common solution is to use a listening device that can help to enhance your natural sense of hearing. What’s more, working with a therapist can help a person get to grips with understanding speech, and specialists in speech therapy are some of the best people to turn to if the processing disorder is specifically related to speech.

Hearing aids are also commonly used by people who are suffering from an auditory processing disorder, and this can greatly help when it comes to interpreting the sounds in your environment as well as improving your recognition of speech.


In summary, auditory processing disorders can be a difficult issue to overcome, but there are a number of treatments that can truly improve a patient’s ability to overcome the many challenges that this condition presents to a person’s life.

Understanding Aphasia – A Disorder That Impairs Communication

Aphasia is a disorder that prevents a person from properly processing language. It is an acquired disorder and most often is caused by serious brain damage. It does impact their ability to communicate, but it does not affect the patient’s intelligence. The person may no longer be capable of properly speaking or understanding people. They most often have a problem with writing and reading as well.

It’s important to understand that a person with aphasia does not necessarily have a mental disorder. Many patients are incredibly intelligent and capable of living successful lives, but with a great degree of difficulty due to their communication problems.

Where Does Aphasia Come From?

Patients are not born with aphasia. It is most often identified in adults and the most common cause of aphasia is a stroke. Studies have shown that nearly 40 percent of all stroke patients develop some form of aphasia. Other health conditions that can lead to the development of this disorder include dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, an infection in the brain, or a brain tumor.

Another leading cause is a brain injury. Suffering serious damage to one or more sections of the brain has a high probability of causing aphasia. It’s estimated that slightly less than 200,000 people develop the condition each year and that it is already more common than cerebral palsy with more than 2 million existing patients.

As mentioned earlier, it is most often diagnosed in adults, but it can just as easily affect children. It can occur in a person of any gender, age, or race without discrimination. It simply occurs more often in adults because more than 60 percent of stroke victims are older than 65.

Is It Possible To Cure?

Several different treatments have become popular over the years. The best possible treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and how long it has existed. If the symptoms last beyond three months, then it is highly unlikely the patient will ever experience a full recovery.

However, that doesn’t mean they cannot recover to some degree. Patients with aphasia can continue to see improvements in their communication skills decades after being diagnosed. It all depends on their treatments. A primary focus in many of the treatments is developing new strategies of communication, such as visual communication techniques.

Overall, aphasia is a very unfortunate and entirely too common disorder. But it’s one with potential treatments that can deliver results in time.


A Condition That Impairs Written Communication

As science, medicine, and the understanding of the human brain progress, we are learning about more and more learning disorders that were hidden from us decades ago. Our new understanding of these disorders helps us to better teach children who are diagnosed. We now understand that there are reasons why students can’t seem to grasp a particular subject or perform a particular function.

Dysgraphia is a learning disorder that doesn’t spend much time in the spotlight but is more common than you might think. It has no cure and children who suffer from the condition are at a severe disadvantage in the classroom as well as life.

What’s It All About?

Dysgraphia is a condition that results in a deficiency in written communication. Not only does it impair the student’s ability to write properly, but also their ability to understand the written language. It can cause other problems as well, such as poor motor skills, injuries, poor spatial planning, and an inability to write and think at the same time.

In the past, a student with dysgraphia might have just been considered lazy by their parents or teachers. Today, this is an understood issue with the brain that requires attention and treatment to overcome.

It may show itself in various degrees of severity. Some students find it nearly impossible to properly hold a pencil or write a later. For the most part, patients with dysgraphia have very poor handwriting. Those who can write words and sentences still struggle with spelling, spacing, and forming proper ideas.

Identifying The Cause.

Identifying an absolute cause for this condition has been nearly impossible. It is believed that it stems from a problem with working memory. Students struggle with something known as “orthographic coding, which is an ability to store words in their working memory. They then have a hard time remembering how those words are written. This can apply to an entire word or even a single character.

It’s also believed that the condition may be genetic. Some studies have shown that students with the condition tend to have close relatives that suffer from the condition as well. This seems to be true of many other learning conditions that exist at birth.

Seeking Help.

While there may be no cure, there are a few potential treatments. It’s a good idea to seek help if you or a teacher believes your child is suffering from dysgraphia. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the easier it is to get results from a treatment.

What Is Spina Bifida Symptoms And Treatment

Spina bifida or ‘neural tube defect’ is a type of birth defect that occurs when the vertebrae don’t properly form around part of the spinal cord of an infant. The condition can be mild or severe, the mild form being most common and usually doesn’t need treatment or cause any problems. Spina bifida cannot be seen on the spine although sometimes there may a birthmark, a dimple, or a hairy patch on the site. Most people are unaware that they have this defect until they have a back X-ray for some reason.

A more severe form called “meningocele” is rare and a bulge may appear on the spine were leaked fluid from the vertebrae pushes against the skin of the back. In most cases, these are the only symptoms.

The most severe form is called myelomeningocele and is very rare. Part of the nerves in the spine is pushed out of the spinal canal and often become damaged. There may be a bulge on the skin and in some infant cases the skin opens up to expose the nerves.

What Are The Causes Of Spina Bifida?
The exact cause is unknown although experts are of the opinion that the environment and genes play a part in causing this condition. Genetically, a woman who has had one child with spina bifida is more likely to have a second child with the same condition. Spina bifida is also more prevalent in babies whose mothers were obese or had diabetes during pregnancy.

Spina Bifida Symptoms
Symptoms depend on the severity of the condition and most children who have a mild form never have any problems. Children with the more severe meningocele form also do not have any symptoms. Only children with the most severe form of spina bifida, myelomeningocele, may have brain and spinal issues that can cause serious problems. Symptoms of myelomeningocele include:

– Little or no sensation in the feet, legs or arms and an inability to move these parts of the body.
– Bowel or bladder problems with leaking urine and problems passing stools.
– A curvature of the spine called scoliosis.
– Hydrocephalus or fluid buildup in the brain that may cause learning problems, seizures or vision problems.

Children with myelomeningocele usually need surgery to correct the defect and sometimes surgery can be done before birth. Surgery will also be done on children with hydrocephalus to insert a shunt, or drainage tube to drain the excess fluid and relieve pressure on the brain. This will prevent swelling from causing brain damage. Some children may require a wheelchair, a brace or other medical aids. Children with bladder problems may need a catheter to be inserted in order to prevent kidney infection and damage. Children with bowel problems need to start working with medical assistants to manage bowel care.

Physical and occupational therapists work with parents and children who have severe spina bifida soon after birth and teach parents and caregivers to do activities and exercises with their children.