The Concise Guide to Stuttering

Stuttering is an involuntary interruption to the normal flow of speech. This is characterized by becoming stuck on a single syllable or entire word during the sentence, like stu – stutter. Other times the symptom is characterized by a prolongation of one specific sound, for example, SSsssssssss– stutter.

Other people will simply stop mid sentence as if hesitating to say a word or continuing in a sentence. Finally, others will simply stop and make no sound as they attempt to complete their thought. Then there are other side-effects like becoming physically tired when attempting to communicate and of course the natural stress and frustration that can accompany such a speech impediment.

What Causes Stuttering?

Stuttering can be caused by a number of reasons that include childhood speech habits and even nervous conditions, says a speech pathologist in Florida. Some of the most common reasons for stuttering are:

-Specific family dynamics that cultivate the improper speech habits
-Family history of stuttering
-Developmental process during formative years
-Brain injuries that interrupt speech patterns.
-Severe Trauma which can cause a psychogenic stuttering.

How Is Stuttering Treated?

Not every child who develops a stuttering problem will need to receive treatment. This is because many of these conditions have to do with developmental stuttering that can be grown out of. One of the best options is speech therapy for those that do linger past the teens.

Speech Therapy

Speech therapy can do much to help a child process their thoughts and form their speech patterns effectively this can actually help the child to control their stuttering and begin speaking properly. Therapy is most often centered around the control of through interfacing with laryngeal tension, breathing patterns and rate of speech.

Speech therapy is the best option for treating those that:

— have stuttered for the last three to seven months.

–Struggle with stuttering due to emotional upset or family history of stuttering.

–speech therapy can also help a child who has developed stuttering conditions due to nervousness when speaking to adopt correct speech patterns.

Other Treatments

Electronic devices are also used to bring a speech recognition to the stuttering patient that allows them to adjust their speech patterns in an intuitive way. This can include playing back an electronic recording of the voice to help them consciously slow their rate of speech. Some other electronic devices to aid in reducing stuttering include, small earpieces. These emit a sound that has been known to help reduce the symptoms of this condition to a certain extent.

What Is Auditory Processing Disorder – An Overview

The condition is known as “auditory processing disorder” isn’t something that is widely understood by the layperson, but it is considered to be an umbrella term that covers a variety of different disorders that affect how your brain processes auditory information.

In this guide, we’re going to go into more detail regarding this condition, as well as explain some of the most common symptoms as well as the most useful treatments.

What is auditory processing disorder?

First of all, auditory processing disorder is a term given to several conditions that affect a person’s ability to understand and process audio information, particularly when it comes to understanding speech.

While the condition isn’t fully understood, there have been links drawn between head trauma, premature birth, and ear infections each of which has caused specific cases of auditory processing disorder to occur.

The condition is often first noticed in children, and it is often noticed when a child first begins to have difficulty discerning the words people say in conversation.

What are the symptoms?

In most cases, the primary symptom is the difficulty in understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. However, it can also affect a person’s ability to distinguish different types of sound, especially if they are quite similar in nature.

The condition also results in learning disability for some individuals, and it can also manifest itself as an overall sensitivity to sound.

What are the treatments?

Unfortunately, there is no known cure for the condition itself, although there are a variety of ways to treat the symptoms, which can allow the sufferer to continue with their life with as minimal interference as possible.

Perhaps the most common solution is to use a listening device that can help to enhance your natural sense of hearing. What’s more, working with a therapist can help a person get to grips with understanding speech, and specialists in speech therapy are some of the best people to turn to if the processing disorder is specifically related to speech.

Hearing aids are also commonly used by people who are suffering from an auditory processing disorder, and this can greatly help when it comes to interpreting the sounds in your environment as well as improving your recognition of speech.


In summary, auditory processing disorders can be a difficult issue to overcome, but there are a number of treatments that can truly improve a patient’s ability to overcome the many challenges that this condition presents to a person’s life.

Understanding Aphasia – A Disorder That Impairs Communication

Aphasia is a disorder that prevents a person from properly processing language. It is an acquired disorder and most often is caused by serious brain damage. It does impact their ability to communicate, but it does not affect the patient’s intelligence. The person may no longer be capable of properly speaking or understanding people. They most often have a problem with writing and reading as well.

It’s important to understand that a person with aphasia does not necessarily have a mental disorder. Many patients are incredibly intelligent and capable of living successful lives, but with a great degree of difficulty due to their communication problems.

Where Does Aphasia Come From?

Patients are not born with aphasia. It is most often identified in adults and the most common cause of aphasia is a stroke. Studies have shown that nearly 40 percent of all stroke patients develop some form of aphasia. Other health conditions that can lead to the development of this disorder include dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, an infection in the brain, or a brain tumor.

Another leading cause is a brain injury. Suffering serious damage to one or more sections of the brain has a high probability of causing aphasia. It’s estimated that slightly less than 200,000 people develop the condition each year and that it is already more common than cerebral palsy with more than 2 million existing patients.

As mentioned earlier, it is most often diagnosed in adults, but it can just as easily affect children. It can occur in a person of any gender, age, or race without discrimination. It simply occurs more often in adults because more than 60 percent of stroke victims are older than 65.

Is It Possible To Cure?

Several different treatments have become popular over the years. The best possible treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and how long it has existed. If the symptoms last beyond three months, then it is highly unlikely the patient will ever experience a full recovery.

However, that doesn’t mean they cannot recover to some degree. Patients with aphasia can continue to see improvements in their communication skills decades after being diagnosed. It all depends on their treatments. A primary focus in many of the treatments is developing new strategies of communication, such as visual communication techniques.

Overall, aphasia is a very unfortunate and entirely too common disorder. But it’s one with potential treatments that can deliver results in time.


A Condition That Impairs Written Communication

As science, medicine, and the understanding of the human brain progress, we are learning about more and more learning disorders that were hidden from us decades ago. Our new understanding of these disorders helps us to better teach children who are diagnosed. We now understand that there are reasons why students can’t seem to grasp a particular subject or perform a particular function.

Dysgraphia is a learning disorder that doesn’t spend much time in the spotlight but is more common than you might think. It has no cure and children who suffer from the condition are at a severe disadvantage in the classroom as well as life.

What’s It All About?

Dysgraphia is a condition that results in a deficiency in written communication. Not only does it impair the student’s ability to write properly, but also their ability to understand the written language. It can cause other problems as well, such as poor motor skills, injuries, poor spatial planning, and an inability to write and think at the same time.

In the past, a student with dysgraphia might have just been considered lazy by their parents or teachers. Today, this is an understood issue with the brain that requires attention and treatment to overcome.

It may show itself in various degrees of severity. Some students find it nearly impossible to properly hold a pencil or write a later. For the most part, patients with dysgraphia have very poor handwriting. Those who can write words and sentences still struggle with spelling, spacing, and forming proper ideas.

Identifying The Cause.

Identifying an absolute cause for this condition has been nearly impossible. It is believed that it stems from a problem with working memory. Students struggle with something known as “orthographic coding, which is an ability to store words in their working memory. They then have a hard time remembering how those words are written. This can apply to an entire word or even a single character.

It’s also believed that the condition may be genetic. Some studies have shown that students with the condition tend to have close relatives that suffer from the condition as well. This seems to be true of many other learning conditions that exist at birth.

Seeking Help.

While there may be no cure, there are a few potential treatments. It’s a good idea to seek help if you or a teacher believes your child is suffering from dysgraphia. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the easier it is to get results from a treatment.

What Is Spina Bifida Symptoms And Treatment

Spina bifida or ‘neural tube defect’ is a type of birth defect that occurs when the vertebrae don’t properly form around part of the spinal cord of an infant. The condition can be mild or severe, the mild form being most common and usually doesn’t need treatment or cause any problems. Spina bifida cannot be seen on the spine although sometimes there may a birthmark, a dimple, or a hairy patch on the site. Most people are unaware that they have this defect until they have a back X-ray for some reason.

A more severe form called “meningocele” is rare and a bulge may appear on the spine were leaked fluid from the vertebrae pushes against the skin of the back. In most cases, these are the only symptoms.

The most severe form is called myelomeningocele and is very rare. Part of the nerves in the spine is pushed out of the spinal canal and often become damaged. There may be a bulge on the skin and in some infant cases the skin opens up to expose the nerves.

What Are The Causes Of Spina Bifida?
The exact cause is unknown although experts are of the opinion that the environment and genes play a part in causing this condition. Genetically, a woman who has had one child with spina bifida is more likely to have a second child with the same condition. Spina bifida is also more prevalent in babies whose mothers were obese or had diabetes during pregnancy.

Spina Bifida Symptoms
Symptoms depend on the severity of the condition and most children who have a mild form never have any problems. Children with the more severe meningocele form also do not have any symptoms. Only children with the most severe form of spina bifida, myelomeningocele, may have brain and spinal issues that can cause serious problems. Symptoms of myelomeningocele include:

– Little or no sensation in the feet, legs or arms and an inability to move these parts of the body.
– Bowel or bladder problems with leaking urine and problems passing stools.
– A curvature of the spine called scoliosis.
– Hydrocephalus or fluid buildup in the brain that may cause learning problems, seizures or vision problems.

Children with myelomeningocele usually need surgery to correct the defect and sometimes surgery can be done before birth. Surgery will also be done on children with hydrocephalus to insert a shunt, or drainage tube to drain the excess fluid and relieve pressure on the brain. This will prevent swelling from causing brain damage. Some children may require a wheelchair, a brace or other medical aids. Children with bladder problems may need a catheter to be inserted in order to prevent kidney infection and damage. Children with bowel problems need to start working with medical assistants to manage bowel care.

Physical and occupational therapists work with parents and children who have severe spina bifida soon after birth and teach parents and caregivers to do activities and exercises with their children.

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a collection of diseases that can cause a progressive weakness and deterioration of muscle mass. Anyone who suffers from muscular dystrophy is someone who has a mutation of their genes which will cause an interference with the muscle’s ability to produce important and needed proteins. There are various kinds of muscular dystrophy and most often the symptoms will begin in childhood, according to an online source. The symptoms of this cruel disease are primarily seen occurring in boys.

There are certain people who have this debilitating disease who will eventually not be able to walk. Others may have trouble swallowing or breathing. At the present time, there is not a cure for the different types of muscular dystrophy. However, there are various therapies and medications that can slow the course of the disease and help to manage the various symptoms.

The primary sign of muscular dystrophy is a progressive muscle weakness. Depending on the type of muscular dystrophy, specific symptoms and signs will begin at different ages and in different groups of muscles. Approximately 1/2 of the people who suffer from this disease suffer from Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This form of the disease can affect girls but it typically affects boys.

Boys who suffer from Duchenne muscular dystrophy may not have a family history of the disease. The reason for this may be due to the fact that the gene responsible could be subject to spontaneous mutation. The majority of signs and symptoms will normally appear between the ages of two to three. Some of these signs and symptoms may include walking on the toes, frequent falls, trouble jumping or running, learning disabilities, muscle stiffness and pain, large calf muscles, and difficulty getting up from a sitting or lying position.

Becker muscular dystrophy has symptoms and signs similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy but it is normally milder and it will progress a bit more slowly. The symptoms often begin in the teens but there are cases where they can occur later in life.

There are other types of muscular dystrophy that are identified by a specific feature or by the location in the body where the symptom begins. Other types include Myotonic, Facioscapulohumeral, Congenital, and Limb-Girdle. If a person notices any signs of muscle weakness or an increasing in clumsiness it is extremely important to seek medical advice immediately. Your family doctor will be able to provide you with the proper diagnosis.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta Or Brittle Bone Disease

What is osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease)? Osteogenesis imperfecta, often referred to as OI, is an inborn disease in childhood that causes fractures. It also can cause fractures in adults. This genetic disorder normally results from an abnormality of the genes. People who have this disorder do not have the ability to produce a protein called collagen. Collagen is the primary protein in a bone and it is central for the bone’s strength.

Often, a child who is born with osteogenesis imperfecta will have a fracture that has taken place within the womb. Other children, with this debilitating disease, may have their first fracture either soon after birth or within a few years. There are children with osteogenesis imperfecta that may be misdiagnosed because of only having a few minor fractures in childhood.

In childhood, the fractures are often difficult to predict. A fracture may occur spontaneously and with very little trauma. Therefore, the signs of OI may not be evident for weeks or months until an x-ray is done for some other reason. The bones do not necessarily always behave in a brittle way. There are times when a fracture from an injury should normally occur but does not.

Both boys and girls will see their rate of fractures diminish as they grow older. Once again, the reason for this is unknown. There may be other problems in various parts of the body with this disease besides fractures. The results of these other problems are also because of the absence of collagen. Some of the other problems include joints that may be lax, impaired growth, blue or gray whites of the eyes, discolored and fragile teeth, intolerance of heat, and excessive sweating
People who have osteogenesis imperfecta will have had it since the time of conception. The disorder can pass from one generation to another. However, it can also arise in someone without a family history of the disorder. A Nashville clinical geneticist is a specialist in gene problems and he will be able to help you identify both the pattern of inheritance and the risk of passing this condition on to your children.

The primary treatment for anyone who is diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta is to ensure that all fractures heal in a good position. A patient should be mobilized as soon as possible after a fracture so that they minimize their loss of bone due to the mobilization.

Learn More About Dyslexia

When you look at some people you may think they are perfectly normal and not a thing is wrong with them until you talk to them. It is at this point that you realize they have some type of issue that you are not sure what is wrong. This often is because it is a learning disability that people have managed to hide for a long time period. One of those disabilities that people have a tendency to suffer from is dyslexia. Since this is one of those hidden disabilities people usually do not know a lot about it or even worse think their is nothing wrong with people who suffer from it. So what is it and what does dyslexia do?

The short answer is dyslexia is a disability that prevents people from suffering from it the chance to read properly. That is typically because they are going to flip the position of letters or even worse see the letters going backwards. This makes it very difficult for people to read and even use math at times because they have a tendency to get the answers wrong because of the way the information is being processed in their mind. Now this does not mean they cannot function, because the next paragraph will cover some of the famous dyslexic people.

Now we know that dyslexia already is a disability that makes it difficult to read. However, their is one very famous scientist that a lot of people never really thought about as being dyslexic or having a reading disability. That is none other than the founding father of modern day physics in Albert Einstein and everyone knows what he was able to do. Another famous person who suffered from dyslexia and became famous as a painter is Leonardo da Vinci. So it easy to see that this disease is one that people suffer from, but they have a tendency to blossom in other areas.

Having met some people that have dyslexia you may think they will never amount to anything. However, after learning more about what the disease is and how it impacts the daily life of people helps out tremendously in learning about people who suffer from it. Learning about the famous people who have overcome the dyslexic life, though, make it even easier for you to find the right information to know these people who suffer may be lacking in one area, reading, but they excel in other areas to become some of the worlds brightest minds.

What Is Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that occurs when a baby is born with a partial or full extra chromosome 21. For every 700 babies born, approximately one baby will be born with Down syndrome. In the US, there are around 6000 children born with Down syndrome per year, according to 361 lawyers.

There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 or nondisjunction, mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome, accounting for around 95 percent of the cases. With this type of the syndrome, the 21st chromosome pair does not separate in either the sperm or egg. This results in the embryo having an extra chromosome 21. Mosaicism occurs when a mixture of two types of cells happen. This creates an extra chromosome 21. Around one percent of all cases are mosaicism. With translocation, the extra chromosome 21 will attach itself to another chromosome. This type of Down syndrome occurs in about four percent of cases.

A person with Down syndrome may or may not have many different features of the syndrome. These physical features can include a short stature, short limbs, low muscle tone, slanted eyes, small ears, and crooked or irregular teeth. The health problems associated with Down syndrome can include intellectual disability, eye conditions, celiac diseases, heart defects, dental or hearing problems, behavior problems, and hypothyroidism.

Diagnosing Down syndrome can be done before birth or after. Before birth, screening tests are completed to determine the chances of the child being born with the condition. Diagnostic tests have evolved over time allowing for more ways to test for Down syndrome before birth. Blood tests and ultrasounds are used to help to determine if the baby has the markers of the condition. Diagnostic procedures include amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. When a baby is born, Down syndrome is determined by checking for the physical traits and doing a karyotype test. A karyotype test is a chromosomal analysis that is done by examining the cells in a blood sample from the baby.

People with Down syndrome can still do most things that other people are able to do. Although there are cognitive delays, most of these delays are mild to moderate. More and more individuals are leading independent lives with limited assistance. With proper therapy and teaching, a person with Down syndrome can do almost all of the things that a person without the condition can do, such as play sports, have a job, do well in school, and care for themselves.

Types Of Visual Impairments

The initials WHO represent the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization have a list of classifications of handicaps, disabilities, and impairments that are used to classify the various types of visual impairments. An impairment is typically described as any abnormality or loss in a psychological or physiological function or a loss in an anatomical structure.

A disability, on the other hand, is a restriction that results from an impairment. A disability prevents someone from performing a particular activity in a way that is considered normal. This will often include a person’s daily activities, which is why Visual Impairments are under the IDEA Act thanks to law firms lobbying for its conclusion.

Obviously, a disability or handicap can put a person at a disadvantage in various daily situations. A visual impairment is simply an impairment that limits the functions or actions of the visual system. The National Eye Institute provides information on both a low vision and acute vision impairment. A low vision impairment cannot be corrected by contact lenses, standard glasses, surgery, or medication and it will restrict a person’s ability to perform daily living activities.

A visual acuity means that the visual field can only be corrected by 20 degrees or less. Blindness is also defined as a type of visual acuity. There are many causes for visual impairment including glaucoma, cataracts, nearsightedness, and macular degeneration. Glaucoma is a visual condition that is caused by a rise of normal fluid pressure levels within the eye.

A person who has glaucoma is someone who has a vision that is like a tunnel. The center of the vision remains intact while the peripheries progressively start to decrease. The center of the tunnel like vision will reduce on a progressive level and ultimately lead to total vision loss if not corrected.

With age-related macular degeneration, there is a cottony or woolly opacity in the central area of a person’s vision. With this type of vision disability, the peripheries may continue to see normally. As the central vision becomes obscured it will hinder daily activities such as sewing, driving, and reading. This type of visual impairment is painless.

Other types of visual impairment include cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, nearsightedness, and retinitis pigmentosa. If you have any of the above conditions you should seek the advice of an optometrist or an ophthalmologist. We live in a visual world and it is important to take care of our eyes. A regular visit to an eye doctor can prevent serious eye damage from occurring.