Learn More About Dyslexia

When you look at some people you may think they are perfectly normal and not a thing is wrong with them until you talk to them. It is at this point that you realize they have some type of issue that you are not sure what is wrong. This often is because it is a learning disability that people have managed to hide for a long time period. One of those disabilities that people have a tendency to suffer from is dyslexia. Since this is one of those hidden disabilities people usually do not know a lot about it or even worse think their is nothing wrong with people who suffer from it. So what is it and what does dyslexia do?

The short answer is dyslexia is a disability that prevents people from suffering from it the chance to read properly. That is typically because they are going to flip the position of letters or even worse see the letters going backwards. This makes it very difficult for people to read and even use math at times because they have a tendency to get the answers wrong because of the way the information is being processed in their mind. Now this does not mean they cannot function, because the next paragraph will cover some of the famous dyslexic people.

Now we know that dyslexia already is a disability that makes it difficult to read. However, their is one very famous scientist that a lot of people never really thought about as being dyslexic or having a reading disability. That is none other than the founding father of modern day physics in Albert Einstein and everyone knows what he was able to do. Another famous person who suffered from dyslexia and became famous as a painter is Leonardo da Vinci. So it easy to see that this disease is one that people suffer from, but they have a tendency to blossom in other areas.

Having met some people that have dyslexia you may think they will never amount to anything. However, after learning more about what the disease is and how it impacts the daily life of people helps out tremendously in learning about people who suffer from it. Learning about the famous people who have overcome the dyslexic life, though, make it even easier for you to find the right information to know these people who suffer may be lacking in one area, reading, but they excel in other areas to become some of the worlds brightest minds.

What Is Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that occurs when a baby is born with a partial or full extra chromosome 21. For every 700 babies born, approximately one baby will be born with Down syndrome. In the US, there are around 6000 children born with Down syndrome per year, according to 361 lawyers.

There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 or nondisjunction, mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome, accounting for around 95 percent of the cases. With this type of the syndrome, the 21st chromosome pair does not separate in either the sperm or egg. This results in the embryo having an extra chromosome 21. Mosaicism occurs when a mixture of two types of cells happen. This creates an extra chromosome 21. Around one percent of all cases are mosaicism. With translocation, the extra chromosome 21 will attach itself to another chromosome. This type of Down syndrome occurs in about four percent of cases.

A person with Down syndrome may or may not have many different features of the syndrome. These physical features can include a short stature, short limbs, low muscle tone, slanted eyes, small ears, and crooked or irregular teeth. The health problems associated with Down syndrome can include intellectual disability, eye conditions, celiac diseases, heart defects, dental or hearing problems, behavior problems, and hypothyroidism.

Diagnosing Down syndrome can be done before birth or after. Before birth, screening tests are completed to determine the chances of the child being born with the condition. Diagnostic tests have evolved over time allowing for more ways to test for Down syndrome before birth. Blood tests and ultrasounds are used to help to determine if the baby has the markers of the condition. Diagnostic procedures include amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. When a baby is born, Down syndrome is determined by checking for the physical traits and doing a karyotype test. A karyotype test is a chromosomal analysis that is done by examining the cells in a blood sample from the baby.

People with Down syndrome can still do most things that other people are able to do. Although there are cognitive delays, most of these delays are mild to moderate. More and more individuals are leading independent lives with limited assistance. With proper therapy and teaching, a person with Down syndrome can do almost all of the things that a person without the condition can do, such as play sports, have a job, do well in school, and care for themselves.

Types Of Visual Impairments

The initials WHO represent the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization have a list of classifications of handicaps, disabilities, and impairments that are used to classify the various types of visual impairments. An impairment is typically described as any abnormality or loss in a psychological or physiological function or a loss in an anatomical structure.

A disability, on the other hand, is a restriction that results from an impairment. A disability prevents someone from performing a particular activity in a way that is considered normal. This will often include a person’s daily activities, which is why Visual Impairments are under the IDEA Act thanks to law firms lobbying for its conclusion.

Obviously, a disability or handicap can put a person at a disadvantage in various daily situations. A visual impairment is simply an impairment that limits the functions or actions of the visual system. The National Eye Institute provides information on both a low vision and acute vision impairment. A low vision impairment cannot be corrected by contact lenses, standard glasses, surgery, or medication and it will restrict a person’s ability to perform daily living activities.

A visual acuity means that the visual field can only be corrected by 20 degrees or less. Blindness is also defined as a type of visual acuity. There are many causes for visual impairment including glaucoma, cataracts, nearsightedness, and macular degeneration. Glaucoma is a visual condition that is caused by a rise of normal fluid pressure levels within the eye.

A person who has glaucoma is someone who has a vision that is like a tunnel. The center of the vision remains intact while the peripheries progressively start to decrease. The center of the tunnel like vision will reduce on a progressive level and ultimately lead to total vision loss if not corrected.

With age-related macular degeneration, there is a cottony or woolly opacity in the central area of a person’s vision. With this type of vision disability, the peripheries may continue to see normally. As the central vision becomes obscured it will hinder daily activities such as sewing, driving, and reading. This type of visual impairment is painless.

Other types of visual impairment include cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, nearsightedness, and retinitis pigmentosa. If you have any of the above conditions you should seek the advice of an optometrist or an ophthalmologist. We live in a visual world and it is important to take care of our eyes. A regular visit to an eye doctor can prevent serious eye damage from occurring.

Types Of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries are different. The different forms of brain injuries are based on the amount of force and the nature of force that impacts the head. Traumatic brain injuries could affect one area of the brain, certain functional areas, or even all areas of the brain.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury

1. Concussion
Concussions occur when an abrupt movement or momentum change or impact affects the brain. This may cause blood vessels of the brain to stretch, or damage the cranial nerves. Concussions can also be caused by gunshot wounds, direct blows to the head, a whiplash type of injury, or violent shaking of the head.

Both open and closed types of brain injuries can produce a concussion. The victim may remain conscious but feel “punch drunk” or “dazed” or may experience a brief loss of consciousness lasting less than 20 minutes. Some concussions can lead to substantial impairments and difficulties that could last up to a lifetime. Such impairments can be alleviated or eased through rehabilitation. But there are patients who are released from treatment without rehabilitation or guidance of any kind.

2. Contusion

This is a bruise or bleeding of the brain. It can be caused by a direct impact to the head of the individual. Surgery might be needed to remove larger contusions.

3. Diffuse Axonal Injury

This is typically caused by strong rotation or shaking of the head, just with the Shaken Baby Syndrome. It can also be caused by rotational forces on the head, such as ones experienced in a vehicle accident. The injuries are caused by the unmoving nature of the brain, which remains intact behind the movement of the skull. This causes the structures of the brain to tear.

If there’s an extensive tearing of nerve tissue in the brain, it might lead to the release of brain chemicals, disrupting the natural chemical and communication processes in the brain, leading to additional injury. This disturbance might lead to temporal or permanent brain damage, coma, and even death.

4. Coup Contrecoup

This injury describes contusions located at the site of impact, or at the complete opposite side of the brain. In most cases, this happens when the force impacting the brain is great enough to not only cause a contusion at the site of impact, but also cause the brain to slam onto the other side of the skull leading to additional contusion.

5. Penetration

Penetrating injuries typically occur from an impact of a knife, bullet, or sharp objects that forces skin, hair, bone, and other fragments to penetrate the brain. For objects travelling at a slower speed, the brain and the skull can ricochet within the skull, widening the area of damage.

Overall, firearms are the major cause of death from traumatic brain injuries. The devastating traumatic brain injuries resulting from bullet wounds cause an overall 91% deaths rate from firearms.

Four Different Types Of Speech And Language Impairments

Speech and language are important milestones in child development. Not only do they play a large role in everyday life making them essential to daily functioning, but they are a means of communicating with parents and expressing basic needs. Unfortunately, there are cases where a child will present with delayed speech or a speech and language impairment. This can be detrimental to their development, including psychological and emotional development. This is the main reason why speech and language impairments are covered under the IDEA Act. Together with a long term care planning attorney and a speech pathologist, you will create a plan to make sure that your child develops language.

1. Articulation Disorder

An articulation disorder is an impairment where the child has difficulty forming certain sounds correctly. The sounds may be omitted or improperly formed during speech resulting in the child using substitute sounds, such as “wabbit” instead of “rabbit”. Young children typically display articulation issues when learning to speak, but will often pass this phase by a certain age. However, if the difficulty continues to persist beyond a specific developmental age, it is possible that they are experiencing an articulation disorder.

2. Apraxia Of Speech

Apraxia of speech is a communication disorder that affects the programming system for speech production. Speech production in early childhood can be difficult, particularly regarding sequencing and word formation. An individual experiencing this impairment may know what they want to say, but a disruption in the programming system disallows the muscle to move correctly and the sound is produced. This leads to articulation errors, intonation difficulties, rhythm errors and speaking stress. Apraxia of speech can be identified in childhood or as a result of brain injury during adulthood or childhood.

3. Stuttering

One of the most well-known speech impairments is stuttering. Stuttering occurs when speech is interrupted by prolonged sounds, hesitations before words, and involuntary repetitions of words or sentences. This can be a developmental impairment, but it can also be acquired due to brain injury. No direct link has been discovered for stuttering; however, evidence shows that children with relatives who stutter are at higher risk of stuttering.

It should be noted that stuttering is not a difficulty in sound production, but a result of speech stress and nervousness to talk. The severity of the stutter will vary dependent on the speaker and their current level of anxiety.

4. Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome or FXS is a genetic disorder that is a common cause for many inherited intellectual disabilities in males, particularly autism. FXS will also affect females, but their symptoms tend to be milder than the male counterparts.

The speech and language impairment associated with FXS include repetition of words and phrases, difficulties with the pragmatics of speech, and overall cluttered speaking. The severity of the condition will differ according to the individual’s FXS.

Five Different Types Of Orthopedic Impairments

The human body can suffer and endure various types of physical injuries and impairments; however, many of these impairments can have a detrimental influence on the individual’s daily functioning. An orthopedic impairment is a type of impairment that can offer this negative effect because this can result in an incapacity for walking or sitting. Fortunately, orthopedic impairments can be effectively treated using traditional treatments such a physiotherapy or surgery. This article will provide information on five different types of orthopedic impairments and how they can be treated.

1. Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is a chronic condition affecting an individual’s bones and joints. It is triggered by specific bacteria and slowly destroys the bones by the disintegration of the matter. Due to the presence of bacteria and infection, pus is produced by the immune system which can result in a discharge with bad odor. This condition is most often introduced into the body through untreated abrasions and if it is not treated quickly, reconstructive orthopedic surgery may be required.

2. Spinal Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a highly infectious disease that can result in severe symptoms and death. When it is evident in the spine, it will cause a disintegration of the spinal column and the nerves. During this process, the impairment can be detrimental and will affect various areas of an individual’s life; therefore resulting in death if not treated correctly. Spinal tuberculosis can be identified in the thickening of the chest after a sharp bend is evident in the spinal region.

3. Cerebral Palsy

While cerebral palsy is technically a type of chronic motor condition affecting the body in entirety, it can lead to an inability to move, a lack of muscle tone, and a lack of muscle coordination. In the most severe cases, cerebral palsy will result in brain damage and the patient can experience a loss of mental capacity. This is particularly evident if the condition occurs when the baby is in the womb.

4. The Cleft Lip

A cleft lip is a common deformity and will occur as part of childhood development. The various parts of the face continue to form and, typically, the body will fuse the areas together. However, if the fusion between the medial and the maxillary nasal regions are not adequately fused, a cleft will form.

5. Angular Bone Deformity

An angular bone deformity is a simple bending of the bones above the knee and is a result of variations in normal growth patterns. The angular deformity will contribute to “knock knees” or “bow legs” and this can become worse as the child ages. This is considered as an orthopedic impairment because if this is not treated it can lead to unavoidable joint damage.

What Exactly Is A Learning Disability?

A learning disability is a problem that happens within the brain, a neurological disorder that prevents people from learning because their brain is hardwired in a different way. People that have lingering disabilities can actually be smarter than the average person, but have a problem with certain ways of learning. Let’s go over some of the most common learning disabilities, and why they are able to affect people.

How Does A Learning Disability Start?

A learning disability is simply the result of the brain not processing what the five senses are able to pick up. For example, if you have dyslexia, this is a condition where you are not able to read words properly, a condition that causes your brain to reverse certain letters. Another one is ADHD. This is a attention deficit disorder combined with hyperactivity which not only affects children, but also millions of adults. They become overloaded with what they are trying to process, and as a result of this, can become erratic in their behavior (which sometimes leads to personal injury) and also have trouble sitting long enough to focus on what is being taught. Others include dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and many other conditions that inhibit the person from being able to process simple information.

Is There A Cure For These Disorders?

According to many people, these processing deficits found within these individuals are simply unable to take sensory data and process at the normal way. Each one can affect individual people differently, with some people having a substantial disorder which will prevent them from reading, or may make it virtually impossible for them to have social interactions. In order to combat this, prescription drugs are often given to these individuals that have this overload of information which will include stimulants, antihypertensive drugs, and cognition enhancing supplements such as nootropics.

Now that you have a better idea of what a learning disability is, and how it can be treated, you may want to speak with your doctor about how to deal with these problems. You can find a full list of symptoms to look for online, and corresponding medical treatments that are available, that can help you with what could be a very debilitating problem. At the very least, you will understand if you have one, and if so, what options you have available. This may allow you to become more cognizant, and also more social, once you have figured out these problems.

Debunking Myths About Intellectual Disabilities

There are a lot of myths and misinformation about mental illness and disabilities. Many people think it’s “all in your head”, which is true in much the same way as breaking a bone is “all in your arm”. There are certain mental disabilities that people are fine with, such as depression and anxiety, right up until those disabilities cause a real world problem. Then people will complain about how inconvenient the whole situation is for them.

This is why many children get diagnosed with an intellectual disability. For some time, this was referred to as “mental retardation”, but as scientific understanding of mental disabilities has grown the term “retarded” has become less useful. It also became a slur, used to insult people, which caused many of those with disabilities to proclaim they didn’t want the word used any longer.

But what’s the problem with intellectual disabilities? What are they? The short answer is that an intellectual disability is exactly that. Some aspect of the brain was not fully formed for one reason or another, and a person is unable to process information at the same speed as the average person their age. This can cause many different issues throughout the person’s life.

Another bit of misinformation is that a person is either fully functional or has a mental disability, and there’s no in-between. That’s not true at all. The truth is that there is a wide range of problems that can be covered under the umbrella term of “intellectual disability”. For example, ADHD is often paired with the term. While the two aren’t the same thing by a strict reading of the DSM-V they tend to go hand in hand. Since ADHD affects a person’s ability to focus and process information, it’s understandable that they would also have a difficult time functioning at the same level as those around them.

This also means that not every person needs to be treated the same way. There are some therapies and medications that can help with some disabilities, where as others can only be managed. There are some people who will never learn how to be more functional than a child, where as others can function mostly at the level of those around them but will need more time to study and learn to do so.

In short, intellectual disabilities are difficult to diagnose from a short interaction. So don’t presume that you can tell if someone is or is not disabled.

The Three Types Of Hearing Impairment

There are three types of hearing loss that can indicate what the underlying causes for the loss of hearing. The reasons for the loss of hearing can be sensorial, conductive or mixed. Please note, that hearing loss is different than deafness, which is why it’s considered a different disability under the IDEA act.

Sensorial Hearing Loss

The most common type of hearing is known as sensorial hearing loss. This is a total loss of hearing and results from irreparable damage done to the fine hair like cells of the inner ear that transfer sound signals from the ear to the brain, These delicate sounding implements allow the variance of distance and intensity to be defined clearly.

There is no treatment for sensorial hearing loss. This is because the capacity to repair the tiny and highly delicate cells in question exceeds the capacity of modern medical science or surgical precision. Nevertheless, the condition can be aided in some level with the help of a hearing aid or certain cochlear implants. It will be necessary for those with any level of sensorial hearing loss to take advantages of vibrating alarm clocks, captioned phones and other assistive hearing devices but the results vary.

Conductive hearing loss

A slightly less common form of hearing loss is called conductive hearing loss. This is the result of many types of obstructions that can damage the inner or outer ear and also prevent the smooth conveyance of sound to the proper sensory nerves. This type of hearing loss can be severe and permanent or it can be mild and temporary depending on the underlying causes.

There are a variety of different medical procedures that can be applied to improving the hearing of those with conductive hearing loss. Many causes of this type of hearing loss include excessive wax in the auditory canal, foreign objects, abnormal growths and more. These can be treated with a number of techniques for removing wax and foreign objects, surgically removing growths or treating infections with antibiotics. In these cases, the afflicted will regain their hearing in a short amount of time.

Stenosis, exostoses and ossicular chain discontinuity can also cause conductive hearing loss. Because these conditions can be more complex to treat medically and current techniques are insufficient in treating all cases successfully, these types of hearing losses are considered permanent. Again these can be treated with implantable hearing devices. Assisted listening devices will also be important in these cases.

Mixed hearing loss

This is the condition that contains elements of both sensorial and conductive hearing loss. Treatment options can depend on the extent of the damage and whether the hearing loss is more conductive than sensorial.

What Does Mean If Your Child Has Emotional Disturbance?

If you have recently taken your child in to speak with a doctor about problems they are having, such as an inability to learn, they may diagnose them with having an emotional disturbance. This is a conclusion that they may come to as a result of testing their five sensory perceptions, and will conclude that it is something that is in the brain, specifically affecting their life because of an emotional disturbance. There are ways to determine if your child has gone through this type of ordeal, and ways of treating this condition. Let’s define what an emotional disturbance is, and then go over the different treatment options that are available today.

What Is The Definition Of An Emotional Disturbance?

This is often detected in school, specifically after a teacher has determined that the child is not able to learn properly. It is not that they are incapable, but they seem to have either a sensory, intellectual, or health disorder that is causing the problem. The ability to maintain proper interpersonal relations with not only their friends but with teachers will begin to diminish. Their behavior will also be an indication of this problem. They may become moody, being diagnosed as bipolar or depressed. Doctors will be able to come to this conclusion once they have assessed that there is nothing wrong with their ability to process information.

How Is An Emotional Disorder Treated?

In the same way that behavioral disorders are treated with medications, so also can emotional disorders. Physicians will often recommend talk therapy before recommending any type of pharmaceutical to help them. For example, they may ask you to take your child to a psychologist in order to discuss the problems they may be having. This type of therapy can help them identify the negative feelings that they are harboring inside, and begin to work through the negative thought patterns which are impeding their ability to socialize and learn. If it is determined that they do have a bipolar disorder as a result of this emotional disorder, they may be given medication such as an antidepressant such as Paxil or Zoloft. They may also recommend medication such as Adderall. These have been shown to help kids deal with these problems, but it is a measure of last resort as it can also have side effects that can affect their behavior even more.

Emotional disorders or disturbances are typically the result of a trauma that has happened in the past. It might be repressed, and therefore they may not be able to recall what has happened. Through psychotherapy, these repressed feelings may be revealed, allowing the child to release that emotion inside that is causing the problem. If this can be done, sometimes the symptoms of this disorder will diminish, allowing them to become more progressive at school and socialize on a much more normal level. This is a condition that can affect anyone, and if you believe that your child is suffering from an emotional disturbance, these are the ways that it can be diagnosed and potentially treated.